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Arkansas License Plates

Arkansas License Plates

Registering your vehicle in Arkansas is done through the Office of Motor Vehicles Department of the Arkansas Department of Finance and Administration. After completing the registration process for your vehicle, you will be issued Arkansas license plates.
Specialty Arkansas License Plates 
There are over 60 different specialty Arkansas license plates. Depending on the specific style, there are different eligibility requirements for each one. Some of the different plates available include the following:
• Amateur Radio License Plate
• Ambulance License Plate
• Antique Vehicle License Plate
• Arkansas State University License Plate
• Arkansas Tech University License Plate
• Armed Forces Reserve License Plate
• Church Bus License Plate
• Cold War Veteran License Plate
• Ducks Unlimited License Plate
• Fire Fighter License Plate
• Handicapped License Plate
• In God We Trust License Plate
• Organ Donor Awareness License Plate
• Professional Fire Fighter License Plate
• Support Our Troops License Plate
• University of Arkansas License Plate
In order to get a specialty Arkansas License plate, you can request one through the Special License Plate office of Arkansas. This office also takes care of replacements and transfers of personalized Arkansas license plates. Alternatively, you can call the toll free number 1 -800-941-2580, mail the Department of Finance and Administration, or use Arkansas’ online STAR system to renew an Arkansas license plate.
Depending on the type of specialized Arkansas license plate, you will have to pay the standard registration fee as well as other additional plate fees and personalization fees. These fees will vary depending on the specialized plate chosen. Some styles will also require special forms to be filled out as well.

A Guide to Seat Belt Laws in the United States

A Guide to Seat Belt Laws in the United States

There are safety belt laws in all states in the United States with the exception of New Hampshire. In certain states, these seat belt laws may only cover front-seat occupants, but seat belt laws in 26 states as well as the District of Columbia cover both front and rear-seat occupants.
Seat belt laws are separated into two distinct categories Seat Belt Laws: primary and secondary seat belt laws. Primary seat belt laws allow police offers and other law enforcement officers to give a driver a ticket solely due to a seat belt law violation, without having any other traffic offense occur. Secondary seat belt laws only allow police officers and law enforcement officers to issue a traffic ticket for not following seat belt laws only if there is another traffic infraction that is citable.
Primary seat belt laws are used in 32 states as well as the American Samoa, District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rick, the Virgin Islands, and the Mariana Islands. 17 states currently have secondary seat belt laws. Many of these laws are applicable to either younger drivers or young passengers. 
Seat belt laws can have strong implications in civil suits. Currently, 16 states allow the seat belt defense, which can result in reduced damages collected by the victim of a crash if the individual failed to properly use his or her seat belt. These states include Arizona, Alaska, Colorado, California, Florida, Iowa, Missouri, Michigan, Nebraska, New York, North Dakota, New Jersey, Oregon, Ohio, West Virginia and finally Wisconsin. This reduction only allowed for any injuries that could have been prevented by wearing a seat belt. In certain states, the reduction cannot exceed set percentages of the total damages.
Child Seat Belt Laws
Unlike adult seat belt laws, which may or may not exist on a state to state basis, every single state as well as the District of Columbia has child seat belt laws and restraint laws. Child seat belts laws require all children to travel in vehicles with approved child restraint devices. Some child seat belt laws may allow or require older children to just use adult seat belts. The ages at which seat belts can be rather than child restraints varies between states. Young children are usually covered by the state’s child restraint laws, while safety belt laws will cover adults and older children.
Because the enforcement and fines of seat belt laws differ from child restraint laws, you must know which law is being broken when a child is not properly restrained. Most child restraint laws are mainly primary seat belt laws, meaning the police can stop a vehicle solely due to child restraint violations. Other states, such as Nebraska and Ohio, place some children under the secondary enforcement law, meaning that police need to have an additional reason to stop the vehicle. 
Ideally, all children and infants should be covered by child restraint laws or safety belt laws or both. But the differences in the way these laws in various states are phrased can result in many occupants, particularly children, not being by either law. Because of this, lawmakers have eliminated many of these gaps by amending the seat belt laws and child restraint. 
Seat Belt Laws by State
Because laws vary by state, it is important to know the specific seat belt laws and fines for your specific state. The following quickly describes the type whether the state has primary or secondary seat belt laws, what ages they are applicable to, and what fines exist for failure to comply.
• Alabama Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 15 and older in front seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $25.
• Alaska Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 16 and older in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $15 ($25 actual).
• Arizona Seat Belt Laws: Secondary enforcement, applicable for ages 5 and older in front seats and ages 5-15 in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $10 ($37.20 actual).
• Arkansas Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 15 and older in front seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $25.
• California Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 16 and older in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $20 ($88 actual) $50 second offense ($190 actual).
• Colorado Seat Belt Laws: Secondary enforcement 4, applicable for all front seats and everyone under the age of 16 all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $71.
• Connecticut Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 7 and older in front seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $92.
• Delaware Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 16 and older in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $25.
• Florida Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for 6 and older years in front seat and 6 through 17 years in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $30.
• Georgia Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 6-17 in all seats and ages 18 and older in front seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $15.
• Hawaii Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 8-17 in all seats and ages 18 and older in front seat, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $45 ($92 actual).
• Idaho Seat Belt Laws: Secondary enforcement, applicable for ages 7 and older in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $10 ($51.50 actual).
• Illinois Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 16 and older in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $25 ($60 actual or $95 if selecting traffic school).
• Indiana Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 16 and older in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $25.
• Iowa Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 11 and older in front seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $50 ($127.50 actual).
• Kansas Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 14-17 in all seats and ages 18 and older in front seat, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $30.
• Kentucky Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for those more than 40 inches tall in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $25.
• Louisiana Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 13 and older in front seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $25.
• Maine Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 18 and older in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $70 for the 1st offence, $160 for second offense, and up to $310 for the 3rd offense
• Maryland Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 16 and older in front seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $25.
• Massachusetts Seat Belt Laws: Secondary enforcement, applicable for ages 12 and older in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $25.
• Michigan Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 4 and older in front seats and ages 4-15 in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $25.
• Minnesota Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for anyone who is not covered by child passenger safety law in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $25.
• Mississippi Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 4-7 in all seats and ages 8 and older in front seat, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $25.
• Missouri Seat Belt Laws: Secondary enforcement, applicable for ages 16 and older in front seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $10.
• Montana Seat Belt Laws: Secondary enforcement, applicable for ages 6 and older in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $20.
• Nebraska Seat Belt Laws: Secondary enforcement, applicable for ages 18 and older in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $25.
• Nevada Seat Belt Laws: Secondary enforcement, applicable for ages 6 and older in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $25.
• New Hampshire Seat Belt Laws: Primary for children only, applicable for ages 17 and under in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $50.
• New Jersey Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 18 and older in front seat and ages 8-17 in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $50 per person.
• New Mexico Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 18 and older in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $252.
• New York Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 16 and older in front seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $50 ($135 actual after surcharges).
• North Carolina Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement1, applicable for ages 16 and older in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $25 ($100 actual after taking into consideration court costs).
• North Dakota Seat Belt Laws: Secondary enforcement, applicable for ages 18 and older in front seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $20 (actual $100.50).
• Ohio Seat Belt Laws: Secondary enforcement, applicable for ages 15 and older in front seat and ages 4-14 in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $30.
• Oklahoma Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 13 and older in front seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $20.
• Oregon Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 16 and older in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $90.
• Pennsylvania Seat Belt Laws: Secondary enforcement, applicable for ages 8 and older in front seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $10.
• Rhode Island Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 13 and older in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $75.
• South Carolina Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 6 and older in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $25.
• South Dakota Seat Belt Laws: Secondary enforcement, applicable for ages 18 and older in front seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $20.
• Tennessee Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 16 and older in front seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $50.
• Texas Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 8 and older in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $200 
• Utah Seat Belt Laws: Secondary enforcement, applicable for ages 16 and older in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $45.
• Vermont Seat Belt Laws: Secondary enforcement, applicable for ages 16 and older in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $25.
• Virginia Seat Belt Laws: Secondary enforcement 4, applicable for ages 18 and older in front seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $25 
• Washington Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 16 and older in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $124.
• West Virginia Seat Belt Laws: Secondary enforcement, applicable for ages 8 and older in front seats and 8-17 in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $25.
• Wisconsin Seat Belt Laws: Primary enforcement, applicable for ages 8 and older in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $10.
• Wyoming Seat Belt Laws: Secondary enforcement, applicable for ages 9 and older in all seats, the maximum fine for a first time offense is $25

California License Plates

California License Plates

California has required license plates since 1905. Since then, many variations have been made. The current standard sized California license plate is 12” by 6” for automobiles and 8” by 5” for motorcycles. In order for California license plates to be valid, they must have the appropriate tabs or stickers adhered to them.
Standard California license plates are issued by the California Department of Motor Vehicles when you purchase a new vehicle, replace lost, mutilated, or stolen California license plates, or turn in your special interest license plates. California license plates are also used to identify the type of vehicle registration you have (passenger, trailer, commercial etc.) and also provide law enforcement a way of locating the owner through the records from the DMV. Standard California license plates may be replaced through submission of an application for duplicate plates or by going to a DMV office.
Special Interest California License Plates
If you want to personalize you car, you can get a special interest California license plate. Some special interest California license plates are available for automobiles, trailers, motorcycles, and commercial vehicles. Special interest plates can be ordered in standard numbering or sequential order, or they can be personalized as well. You can order nearly all special interest California license plates online through the Department of Motor Vehicles or complete Form REG 17, a Special Interest License Plate Application form, and mail the application to the address found on the bottom of form REG 17.

Colorado License Plates

Colorado License Plates


The Colorado Department of Revenue Division of Motor Vehicles requires that all motor vehicles display valid Colorado license plates. The state of Colorado has both special and standard plates available. Many of these styles can be personalized. The following plates can be personalized:


• Regular Plates
•Alumni Plates
• Group Special Plates
• Designer Plates
• Motorcycle Plates 
• Other Plates
Personalized Designer and Regular Colorado License Plates
Personalized Colorado license plate configuration must have at least two positions and cannot exceed seven. Depending on your application, there may be additional fees are before your personalized plate application is approved. Afterwards, there may also be fees issued each year thereafter upon renewal of your personalized Colorado License Plates. Applicants who have their applications approved will receive a billing letter with further instructions. Payments for your Colorado license plates should not be sent with your initial application.
In order to apply for personalized plates, you need to fill out Form DR 2810, or the Personalized License Plate Application. If you need to replace your personalized forms, you must use Form DR 2204, the Personalized Plate Replacement form. In order to personalize your plates, you must fulfill the following qualifications:
• The only characters that are allowed on personalized Colorado license plates are the uppercase English alphabet, English numbers excluding zero, dashes, blank spaces, and periods.
• You can only have seven characters (6 for motorcycle) including blanks, periods, and dashes. You must have at least 5 characters if they are all numbers, or two for any other plates.

Connecticut License Plates

Connecticut License Plates

There are many different types of Connecticut license plates, from those that give special parking privileges, such as license plates for disabled drivers, to personalized vanity plates that let you to express yourself with your car. 
Personalized Connecticut License Plates
Connecticut’s Department of Motor Vehicles website currently allows you to search through passenger plates online to see if the plate you want is available. You can obtain personalized Connecticut license plates for the following types of registration: passenger, commercial, motorcycle, combination, camper trailer, and camper. The same Connecticut license plate number can be used in each of these registration types. However, you can apply only for personalized Connecticut license plates in the same registration type that your vehicle falls under.
For personalized plates, you can have between 1 and 6 letters, with a small dot between letters, 1 through 6 numbers, with a dot between each of the numbers, or different combinations of both letters and numbers.
In order to apply, you must fill out two copies of Form M-22, the Special Order Plate Application, for your vehicle that is currently registered in Connecticut. If you are using the standard background, you must pay a $90 fee with your application. Special plate backgrounds cost $135. There may be additional fees depending on the plate you choose. Once you fill out the application you can mail it to the DMV Special plate unit, whose address is found on the form.

Wisconsin Vehicle Registration

Wisconsin Vehicle Registration

When you buy or receive a motor vehicle as a gift, you must apply for a title and Wisconsin vehicle registration immediately. The seller of the vehicle must satisfy the assignment of title, including providing an odometer disclosure (unless exempt) as well as signature and also the original document showing a lien release for any liens listed on the vehicle title. 
Wisconsin Vehicle Registration for New Wisconsin Residents
When becoming a Wisconsin resident, you must obtain your Wisconsin registration ad license plates. You are considered a resident of the state if you are registered to vote in the state, you pay you income taxes in Wisconsin, or if your main residence is in the state. In order to complete your Wisconsin Vehicle application, you will need the following documents and forms:
• Out of state title or vehicle registration card from the previous state of residence. 
• Completed Form MV1 Title/License Plate Application.
• Current proof of identity if you are applying in person at a Department of Motor Vehicles customer service center or to a Department of Motor Vehicles agent.
• Title fee.
• Proof of payment of sales tax to your former state if you were the owner of your vehicle for less than 90 days. Any tax paid to another state can be applied to the local or state use tax due.
• WI registration fees, based on the vehicle type.
• County or municipal Wheel tax, if applicable.
• Money order of check payable to Registration Fee Trust
You can submit these either by mail, at a Department of Motor Vehicles service center($5 counter service fee), at a Department of Motor Vehicles agent location (maximum service fee of $10 for a renewal transaction and $19.50 for a title transaction), or at a Department of Motor Vehicles temporary license plate agent ($3 temporary plate fee and up to $5 service).
Wisconsin Vehicle Registration Renewal 
The Wisconsin Department of Transportation mails WI vehicle registration renewal notices at least thirty days before the expiration date. If you lose your WI registration renewal notice, or if you did not receive it, you can download form MV2016, a Substitute Renewal Notice. You can renew your WI vehicle registration either by mail, in person, or online.
Wisconsin Vehicle Registration Fees 
There are many different fees that you may encounter based on your vehicle and situation. Some of the more common ones include the following:
• Automobile WI vehicle registration: $75 annually
• School bus WI registration: $5
• Bus WI registration: Varies by weight
• Motorcycle WI vehicle registration: $23 biennial
• Moped WI vehicle registration: $23 biennial
• Light truck WI registration: $75 annually
• Heavy Truck WI registration: Varies by weight
• Temporary WI vehicle registration: varies
•  Original or transfer of title: $69.50, $62.00 for transfer to a surviving spouse or for a low speed vehicle
• Title replacement: $20.00
• Duplicate certificate of WI vehicle registration: $2.00
• Late WI registration renewal fee: $10.00
• WI Registration file searches: $5 for each search
• Online WI registration renewal: $1.75

Tennessee Vehicle Registration

Tennessee Vehicle Registration

The state of Tennessee requires vehicle owners to complete the Tennessee vehicle registration process for their vehicles. Vehicles must be properly titled and registered before being allowed to be driven on Tennessee roads.
First-Time Tennessee Vehicle Registration 


If you are moving to the state of Tennessee, you will need to complete the Tennessee vehicle registration process for your new vehicle. You can do this by bring the application for Certificate of Title and TN Registration to the office of the local county clerk. If your local county of residence requires emission testing for your vehicle, the vehicle will have to be tested for emissions first before going to the county clerk’s office. 
Once you go, you will be able to give your application and pay the required TN vehicle registration fees. Aside from your application, you will also need to provide the local county clerk with your passed emissions certificate, the most recent out-of-state vehicle registration and the name and address of your vehicle’s lien holder to whom you are making payments to (if you have a leased or financed vehicle). If your vehicle does not have a lien holder, you must provide your out-of-state title to your local county clerk.
If you are a current resident of Tennessee and you have just purchased a new vehicle, you will need to complete the TN vehicle registration process as well. You must submit the new vehicle invoice, the manufacturer’s statement of origin, and a copy of your current vehicle registration if you are transferring your license plate. If you are a resident, but you purchased a used motor vehicle, you must submit an odometer disclosure statement, a certificate of title, and a copy of your current vehicle registration if you are transferring your license plate to the used vehicle. These are all required for a Tennessee vehicle registration.
Regardless of what sort situation applies to you, you will have to submit your TN vehicle registration applications through your local county clerk. You will also need to provide proof of identification as well as proof of residency when you are completing a TN vehicle registration and titling application for your vehicle. 
Renewing a Tennessee Vehicle Registration
The state of Tennessee sends a renewal notice for a Tennessee vehicle registration each month about six weeks in advance of a TN registration expiration date through the mail. This allows Tennessee residents to have adequate time to renew their TN vehicle registration. If a motor vehicle has the TN registration in a county that needs emissions testing, the vehicle must complete before renewing TN registration. Renewal notices are not needed to renew TN vehicle registration.
Any official document that contains the license plate number or the Vehicle Identification Number including a previous renewal notice can be used to renew a Tennessee vehicle registration. You can send renew your TN registration along with pay the required fees to the county clerk by mail. Tennessee vehicle registration renewal fees vary based on the county of residence.

What to Know About Texting While Driving

What to Know About Texting While Driving

What is Texting While Driving?
Texting while driving is the action of writing text messages, sending text messages, reading text messages, reading email, or making similar use of the web and connection features on a mobile phone while controlling operating a motor vehicle. The act of texting while driving has been looked at by many authorities as a dangerous one. Texting while driving has also been ruled many times as the cause of many motor vehicle accidents, and because of this, texting while driving has restricted or outlawed in certain jurisdictions. Texting while driving leads to an increase of distraction behind the wheel.
A study conducted in 2006 by Liberty Mutual Insurance Group which included over than 900 teens from more than 26 high schools across the country showed that 37 percent of students found that texting while to was “very” or “extremely” distracting. Another study by the American Automobile Association found that 46 percent of teen drivers admitted to being distracted while driving due to texting. 
Although talking on a cellular phone while driving a vehicle is considered very dangerous, the threat of this really became a large issue when texting was first introduced. Since the year 2000, texting on mobile devices has very quickly become a social norm, as most cell phone plans provide a text messaging plan. There has also been a significant increase in smart phone sales with the growing popularity of iPhone, Blackberry, and Android phones, which allows people to easily communicate while they are doing almost anything.
The dilemma at this point is finding a point where safety becomes a bigger concern over convenience. Many different studies have shown texting while driving to be the cause of different life-threatening accidents because of the driver’s distraction. The International Telecommunication Union made a statement saying that making calls, making calls, and other interaction with communication systems while driving is a very serious source of driver distraction which increases the chance of traffic accidents.
There was an experiment in 2009 with Eddie Alterman, Car and Driver magazine editor, which took place at a deserted air strip. The experiment showed that texting while driving greatly greater impacted safety while driving than driving drunk. When Alterman was put in a legally drunk state, his stopping distance from 70 mph went up by 4 feet. However, when he was reading an e-mail, 36 feet was added to his stopping distance, while sending a text added 70 feet to it at 70 mph.
United States Texting While Driving Laws
Texting while driving is a big problem in the United States and has been outlawed or will soon be outlawed for all drivers in many states including: Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Colorado, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Iowa, Indiana, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nevada, New Jersey, New Hampshire, North Carolina, New York, Oregon, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia, Vermont,  Washington, Wyoming and Wisconsin. In the state of Texas, the law prevents school bus drivers from texting while driving when transporting a child who is under the age of 17. In many other states including Indiana, Kansas, Missouri, Mississippi, Texas, Nebraska, and West Virginia, there are laws that apply to underage drivers or drivers with learner’s permits which makes it illegal for them to text while driving. Other laws enacted by Kentucky in 2010 and by Indiana in 2011 banned all texting while driving for all drivers, as well as all cell phone usage by all vehicle drivers under the age of 18. The latter portion of the law is very unusual in that drivers with unrestricted licenses are still subject to the cell phone ban. Many states that have banned the use of mobile phone by young drivers only apply their laws to holders of graduated or restricted licenses.
In the state of Florida, a proposed bill called “Heather’s Law” would entirely ban all cell phone use and texting while driving. Heather’s Law was inspired by the death of Heather Hurd, who had been killed in an accident supposedly caused by a truck driver who drove and crashed into ten cars while he was texting while driving.
On October 1, 2009, the United States Department of Transportation announced that President Barack Obama would be signing an Executive Order which directed federal employees to not engage in texting while driving government-owned vehicles, along with other activities. According to the Department of Transportation Secretary Ray Lahood, the order sent a very clear message to the American public saying that that distracted driving is incredibly dangerous and completely unacceptable.
This executive order shows that the federal government was trying to lead by example. As a part of a bigger move to combat texting while driving and distracted driving, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Department of Transportation along with the Department of Transportation launched a public information website called distraction.gov.
On January 26, 2010, the United States Department of Transportation also announced a federal ban on texting while driving by bus drivers and trucks.
Criticisms of Texting While Driving Bans
One common argument against texting while driving bans is that it texting can be safe and helpful under certain circumstances. For example, if a driver is stuck in a traffic jam, he or she can safely send a text message in order to reschedule an appointment. Additionally, there are some products available commercially that suppress the use of cell phone screens and keyboards, which prohibits emailing texting, or web browsing. Some other products also allow calls to be made using in-vehicle Bluetooth connections or other hands free mobile devices in order to reduce the risks of distracted driving.
Another argument against these texting while driving bans is regarding the wording of these bans. Instead of placing a ban on the act of reading or writing a text, which can distract a person, texting while driving laws usually bans the act of sending a text message and does not specifically discuss how the messages are created. With advanced voice recognition technology, text messages can be made both eyes and hands free, without needing to engage in the act of writing or reading.
Notable Texting While Driving Crashes
• August 29, 2007: Danny Oates was killed by a driver of a car who was allegedly texting while driving. The defense argued that the driver Jeffrey Woods may have suffered a seizure during the accident.
• January 3, 2008: Heather Leigh Hurd died in a crash caused by a truck driver who allegedly had been texting while driving. Russell Hurd, her father, has been supporting a law in various states called Heather’s Law, which would prohibit texting while driving.
• September 12, 2008: The Chatsworth train collision killed 25 people. The blame for the accident was placed on the operator who was sending text messages while conducting the train.
May 2009: The MBTA Green Line of the Boston area of the MBTA crashed while the 24-year-old driver was texting while driving the train. The crash resulted in 46 people injured and had an estimated cost of $9.6 million.

Texas Vehicle Registration

Texas Vehicle Registration

Motor vehicle owners in the state of Texas are required by Texas law to register their motor vehicles. This includes new and used vehicles that are purchased from Texas dealers, out-of-state dealers, and private parties.
First-Time Texas Vehicle Registration for New Texas Residents
New residents of Texas must complete the Texas vehicle registration process for their vehicles within thirty (30) days of moving to Texas. This means they must get a vehicle inspection and they must title and register their vehicles with the Texas Department of Motor Vehicles in person. 
New Texas residents must have their motor vehicles pass inspection TX registration and titling. After having a vehicle inspected and passed, vehicle owners should take the following documents to their local county tax office to complete the Texas vehicle registration process:
• Inspection certificate for the vehicle for TX vehicle registration.
• Proof of valid liability insurance for the state of Texas for TX registration.
• The odometer reading of the motor vehicle if it is less than ten years old for TX registration.
• An ownership document, which can be either proof of vehicle registration for out-of-state titled vehicles, the original out-of-state title, current military/foreign ownership document, or foreign proof of ownership for TX vehicle registration.
• Completed Form 130-U, Application for Texas Certificate of Title.
• Completed Form VTR-272, Application for Registration Purposes Only, if you are only registering a vehicle that was titled outside of Texas for TX vehicle registration.
• The appropriate registration fee for TX registration.
• Title application fee of either $28 or $33, depending on your county.
• Proof of sales tax payment or $90 new resident tax for TX registration.
First-Time Texas Vehicle Registration for Current Texas Residents
Residents of the state of Texas who own a motor vehicle are legally required to renew their vehicle registration annually. They can do this in three ways: in person, by mail, or online.
Texas Vehicle Registration in Person: You can register your motor vehicle in person by taking your TX registration renewal notice, proof of liability insurance, and your registration fee to your local county tax office or approved substation. If you do not have a renewal notice, you can complete your Texas vehicle registration with your vehicle identification number, license plate number, or previous year’s registration receipt.
Texas Vehicle Registration by Mail: Texas sends TX registration renewal notices by mail to all registered vehicle owners. You can send your renewal notice, your proof of current Texas liability insurance, the registration fee, and a $1 mail-in fee to your county tax office.
Texas Vehicle Registration Online: Certain counties allow you to renew your TX vehicle registration online. This service is available through the Texas Department of Motor Vehicles website.
Texas Vehicle Registration Fees
As of September 1, 2011, registration fees have been standardized in the state of Texas for cars, light pickups, heavy vehicles, commercial trucks motor homes, travel trailers and regular trailers. The TX vehicle registration fees are as follows:
• $50.75 TX registration fee for light pick-up trucks and cars
• $52.75 TX registration renewal fee for light pick-up trucks and cars
• $54 TX registration for motor vehicles between 6,001 and 10,000 pounds
• Local county fees range from $5 to $11.50

Texting While Driving Statistics

Texting While Driving Statistics

Texting while driving occurs when an individual writes text messages, sends text messages, reads text messages, reads email, or makes similar use of the web and connection features on a cellular phone while driving. Texting while driving is considered by many authorities as a very dangerous activity. Texting while driving is also often the reason for various motor vehicle accidents.  Because of this, texting while driving has restricted or outlawed in certain jurisdictions. Texting while driving leads to an increase of distraction behind the wheel. Here are some informative texting while driving statistics from the Center for Disease Control.
Texting While Driving Statistics: Severity of the Problem
• In 2009, over 5,400 people died in vehicle crashes that were reported to have involved a distracted driver. In the same year, nearly 448,000 were injured as a result of these accidents.
• Among car crashes that resulted in death or injury, nearly 1,000 deaths and 24,000 injuries involved cell phone use as the main driving distraction.
• The proportion of vehicle drivers reportedly distracted during the time of a fatal crash has increased between 2005 and 2990 from 7 percent to 11 percent.
• When asked whether individuals who are driving feels safer, about the same, or less safe as they did five years ago, more than a third of drivers responded that they felt driving was less safe today. The largest reason for this feeling was due to the concern of distracted drivers and texting while driving. Statistics showed that three out of every ten drivers worried about this.
Texting While Driving Statistics: Analysis of Driving Distractions
A recent CDC analysis closely looked at the frequency of two major distractions, texting and cell phone among United States drivers and seven European countries (France, Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom).  They found the following texting while driving statistics:
Texting While Driving Statistics: Cell phone use
• 25 percent of drivers in the United States said that they fairly often or regularly talk on their cell phones while driving.
• In Europe, these percentages ranged from 3 percent in the United Kingdom to 21 percent in the Netherlands. 
• 75 percent of United States drivers between the ages of 18 and 29 reported that they talked on their mobile phones while driving at least one time in the past 30 days, and nearly 40 percent of these drivers reported that they talk on their mobile phones fairly often or regularly while driving.
• In Europe, the percentages of young adults who reported using their cell while driving at least one time in the past 30 days ranged between 30 percent in the Netherlands and 50 percent in Portugal.
Texting While Driving Statistics: Texting and Emailing
• 9 percent of vehicle drivers in the United States reported e-mailing or driving fairly often or regularly while driving.
• In Europe, these percentages ranged from 1 percent in the United Kingdom to 10 percent in the Netherlands.
• 52 percent of United States drivers between the ages of 18 and 29 reported e-mailing or texting while driving at least one time in the last 30 days, and more than a 25 percent report e-mailing or texting fairly often or regularly while driving.
• In Europe, the percentages of young adults who reported e-mailing or texting while driving at least one time in the past 30 days ranged between 17 percent in the United Kingdom and 44 percent in Portugal.